References in Clubs and Ethnic Societies

Origin, Growth, and Usefulness of the Chicago Board of Trade: Its Leading Members, and Representative Businessmen in Other Branches of Trade . New York, Historical Publishing Co, 1885.

Hofmeister, Rudolf. The Germans of Chicago. Champaign: Stipes Publishing Co., 1976.

Nadel, Stanley. Little Germany: Ethnicity, Religion and Class in New York City, 1845-80. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990.

Wittke, Carl. The German-Language Press in America. University of Kentucky Press, 1957.