References in Import and Export

Gratz Family Papers. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [APS]. Finding aid.

Henry Joseph Papers. MS-451. American Jewish Archives, Cincinnati, Ohio. Finding aid.

Philipp Brothers Collection; AR 25131. Leo Baeck Institute, New York. Finding aid.

Straus Family Papers, 1810-1962. Manuscripts and Archives Division, New York Public Library. Finding Aid.

Byars, William Vincent, ed. B. and M. Gratz, Merchants in Philadelphia, 1754-1798 Papers of Interest to Their Posterity and the Posterity of Their Associate. Jefferson City: Hugh Stephens Printing Co., 1916.

Fish, Sidney M. Barnard and Michael Gratz: Their Lives and Times. Lanham: University Press of America, 1994.

Schnurmann, Claudia. "A Scotsman in Hamburg: John Parish and his commercial contribution to the American War of Independence, 1776-1783." In Small is beautiful? Interlopers and smaller trading nations in the pre-industrial period. Proceedings of the XVth World Economic History Congress in Utrecht (Netherlands) 2009 Edited by Markus A. Denzel, Jan de Vries and Philipp Robinson Rössner, 157-176. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2011..

Waszkis, Helmut. Philipp Brothers: The Rise and Fall of a Trading Giant, 1901-1990. London: Metal Bulletin Books, 1992.

Waszkis, Helmut and Peter Marc Waszkis. . London: Metal Bulletin Books, 2003.

Wilkins, Mira. The History of Foreign Investment in the United States to 1914. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989.