New York’s Solar System, 1898
This caricature shows politicians and representatives of various professions revolving around the face of Richard “Boss” Croker, who is portrayed as the sun. Croker, an Irish-American politician, was the leader of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party’s political machine in New York City. The right to vote was the only political leverage many immigrants had – and in exchange for electoral loyalty, Tammany Hall and other urban political machines mediated access to relief funds, offered jobs, and provided social services. Illustration in Puck, v. 43, no. 1099 (March 30, 1898), centerfold. New York's new solar system, 1898, by J. Ottmann Lithographic Company, NY, and Udo J. Keppler.