Bowser, Eileen. The Transformation of Cinema 1907-1915. Vol. 2 of History of American Cinema. Edited by Charles Harpole. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1990.
King, Rob. The Fun Factory: The Keystone Film Company and the Emergence of Mass Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009.
Mack Sennett Papers. Margaret Herrick Library, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, Beverly Hills, California. Finding aid.
Triangle/Reliance Film Corporation Records. Manuscripts and Archives Division, New York Public Library. Finding aid.