German immigrants as percent of total population by state, 1890

Engraving of John Jacob Astor by George E. Perine, circa 1795.

John Jacob Astor

(1763-1848)

Bibliographies

  • Porter, Kenneth W. John Jacob Astor: Business Man. . New York, NY: Russell & Russell, 1931.
  • Emmerich, Alexander. John Jacob Astor: Der erfolgreichste deutsche Auswanderer. . Stuttgart: Konrad-Theiss-Verlag, 2009.